skills that are specific to the activity or subject matter, such as learning how to paint
discipline that mostly just benefits the adult. If a kid acts up, the behavior must be
stopped because it is irritating to the adult, not necessarily because the adult is
concerned about the child or other kids in the group. This discipline is often used in a
crisis, or when a leader is frustrated, angry, or doesn't know how to handle a situation.
The adult may not explain the rules and expectations beforehand, but reacts according to
Conflict is when two or more people have incompatible needs or desires. How a person
responds to conflict is called conflict resolution. Successful resolution of conflict
depends on if the people use effective or ineffective strategies. An ineffective strategy
would be aggressionhurting the other person. An effective strategy is taking turns.
See the section on Conflict Resolution
for more information.
positive experiences, opportunities, and personal qualities that influence the health and
well-being of young people; 40 characteristics identified by Search Institute that form
the foundation for youth to grow up healthy, caring, and responsible.
Ecology of Youth Development:
the individual factors (i.e., personality, temperament) and environmental factors (i.e.,
family, school, peers, community, political system, economy, culture) that influence youth
Experiential Learning Model:
powerful approach for learning life skills that emphasizes (1) hands-on experiences, (2)
processing those experiences through discussion, and (3) applying the knowledge gained to
other "real life" situations.
Life Skills: skills, such
as decision making or public speaking, that are gained from an activity and are useful
long after the activity is finished.
Modeling: learning by
example. Kids learn by watching what others do, and the consequences of what others do.
Kids especially imitate adults who the children admire and look up to. Also see the
section on modeling.
organized, systematic teaching and learning that takes place outside the formal school
system; not an alternative to formal education, but another kind of education essential
for helping young people grow to optimal maturity.
hurting others physically by breaking a toy, slugging, tackling, or yelling at them. Boys
are more likely to use this aggression. Physical aggression usually decreases as kids get
older. (Aggression is different than assertiveness. Assertiveness means self-reliance,
boldness, or standing up for your beliefs. Aggression means intentionally hurting
someone.) Also see the section on aggression.
factors or processes that serve to reduce the probability of negative outcomes (such as
school failure, delinquency, and drug use) and enhance the probability of positive
outcomes (such as autonomy, self-esteem, and good school performance.)
Relational Aggression: trying to
damage the other persons self-esteem, or friendships, such as saying, "you
arent my friend anymore," or "You cant come to our slumber party
because you are dumb." Girls are more likely to use this kind of aggression. Also see
the section on aggression.
Risk Factors: factors or
processes that put youth at risk of not becoming caring, contributing members of society.
The more risk factors present in a childs life, the more likely that child will
nonprofit organization that translates high quality, youth-centered research into
practical ideas, tools, services, and resources. For more information on Search Institute,
contact their Web site at http://www.search-institute.org.
childs basic personality or disposition. A product of both genes and the
childs life experiences.
Youth-Centered Discipline: discipline that
truly contributes to the healthy development of the kids. Put simply, the kids come first.
The adult is more democratic, letting the group have some input on the rules and
consequences. (See "Tips On Rule-Making"
for more information.) Rules and expectations are explained clearly before the group
member acts up. Above all, the leader is genuinely warm and concerned for the childs
Organizations: community-based organizations that promote the positive, healthy
development of young people by providing challenges, experiences, and support; are not
agencies that provide treatment for social problems.